Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

                                    Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

                                                            Article Analysis

Article citation and permalink Jahan, S., & Al-Saigul, A. M. (2017). Primary health care research in Saudi Arabia: A quantitative analysis. International Journal of Health Sciences, 11(2), 9–15.
Point This study analyzes healthcare research in Saudi Arabia quantitatively and identifies the distribution of material acrossvarious parameters. 
Title Primary health care research in Saudi Arabia: A quantitative analysis
Problem statement Saudi Arabia faces a considerable gap in the professional application of PHC research. Thus, it’s necessary to conduct a quantitative study on publications to review the scientific progress of institutions.
Purpose statement The goal of this paper is to evaluate primary healthcare research conducted in Saudi Arabia and to identify the allocation of publications across geographical, topic, time, and institutional dynamics.
Research questions What is the average research output in Saudi Arabia? Which geographical locations provide the most significant scientific research? What are the distribution patterns for publications in the contexts of institution, time, location, and topic?
Hypothesis The study hypothesized that analyzing thePHC publications in Saudi Arabia could be reliable in identifying output and distribution patterns of scientific research.
Dependent and independent variables and type of data First author’s institution group – All articles reviewed in the study provided information on the author’s institutional affiliation. Also, organizations were categorized through several dynamics, including University, Special Hospitals, and Military Institutions, to name a few.Geographical location of institutions – The institutional affiliation of the authors was used to categorize articles in their respective organizations. Further, institutions located within Saudi Arabia were classified according to provinces, while those outside state lines tagged as “institutions outside Saudi Arabia (Jahan & Al-Saigul, 2017, pp. 10).”
Population of interest for the study The study searched articles in two databases, PubMed and Google Scholar, which were published between May 2012 to April 2013. Also, it included original research, case studies, and reviews, and excluded corrections, meetings, and book reviews. 
Sample 655 PHC articles
Sampling method Four MeSH terms, “Primary health,” “Primary care,” and “Saudi” were used to filter relevant articles from the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Also, the papers had to be published between May 2012 and April 2013 (Jahan & Al-Saigul, 2017, pp. 10). 
Data collection A coding tool was employed to gather specific information from all selected articles. The instrument operated under the following variables; article title, first author’s institution, geographical location, study design, year of publication, MeSH term, name of the journal, and research setting.
Data collection approach For standardization purposes, the study applied the MeSH algorithm patented by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. The tool contains MeSH vocabulary, which can be altered according to different degrees of specificity. Also, it incorporates both broad and narrow headings that were essential in searching publications. The “MeSH on-demand”text box was used to identify research topics after analyzing the abstract of a journal article. Next, the research team had to agree upon a relevant MeSH term, which was used to obtain theMeSH descriptor data.Finally, all the applicable MeSH terms were fed into the coding system.
Data analysis Epi info version 3.5.4. was used to compute the frequencies of different variables(Jahan & Al-Saigul, 2017, pp. 11.)
Results of the study The coding system identified 655 PHC articles published between 1983 and 2011, and the output grew with time. Further, original research papers (85.6%) made up most of the publications, while (93.4%) was the most applied study method. The most applied research topics were “chronic diseases” and “health services research.” Most publications came from Riyadh province (46.3%), followed by Universities (52.3%), and finally, the Ministry of Health (24.9%) (Jahan & Al-Saigul,2017, p. 9).  
Assumptions and limitations The most significant limitation of the study is that it only analyzes the quantitative aspect of publications in Saudi Arabia and disregards the quality. Also, the study assumed that the articles located in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases would adequately represent the scientific output in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, discrepancies in indexing dynamics affected the database search, and some publications couldn’t be identified. Some abstracts didn’t provide reliable information to identify the variables of several articles.Finally, the paper didn’t find appropriate MeSH terms for occasional studies, which risks a misclassification of several publications.

     Ethical Considerations

Ethics is a significant cornerstone of conducting proper research. In the , there isconsiderable potential for infringing participants’ consent.Explicitly, some subjects may prohibit the use of their medical information in further studies, which is a potential ethical consideration in this study. In future studies, the authors and the institution should acknowledge that the provision of information, like the geographical distribution of publications and main topics, doesn’t contravene consent agreements.

Furthermore, the results of the study could potentially violate the Beneficenceprinciple.The rule mandates researchers to structure hypotheses and conduct research appropriately to serve beneficiariesbetter (Fouka & Mantzorou, 2011, p.5). In this context, when study findings don’t match the expected proficiency, researchers and medical practitioners might face significant ethical considerations.Therefore, researchers have to consider what elements of a study could be “harmful” to avoid emotional, psychological, social, and economic consequences. For instance, Jahan & Al-Saigul (2017) concluded that most studies in Saudi Arabia implement cross-sectional study designs.

Consequently, there is a deficiency of , which technically provide more reliable evidence. Some readers can use this conclusion to infer that Saudi Arabia lacks efficient research, which could raise ethical issues amongst institutions and health care providers. However, Jahan & Al-Saigul provide reliable recommendations that encourage the professional implementation of PCH research (Jahan & Al-Saigul, 2017, pp.14). They emphasize on the pros of introducing a central regulatory authority that oversees all activities across the constituents.

References

Fouka, G., & Mantzorou, M. (2011). What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? Is there a conflict between the research ethics and the nature of nursing? Health Science Journal, 5(1), 3-14.

Jahan, S., & Al-Saigul, A. M. (2017). Primary health care research in Saudi Arabia: A        quantitative analysis. International Journal of Health Sciences, 11(2), 9–15

Published by Essay Blender on September 9, 2020
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                                Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

                                                        Article Analysis

Article citation and permalink Jahan, S., & Al-Saigul, A. M. (2017). Primary health care research in Saudi Arabia: A quantitative analysis. International Journal of Health Sciences, 11(2), 9–15.
Point This study analyzes healthcare research in Saudi Arabia quantitatively and identifies the distribution of material acrossvarious parameters.
Title Primary health care research in Saudi Arabia: A quantitative analysis
Problem statement Saudi Arabia faces a considerable gap in the professional application of PHC research. Thus, it’s necessary to conduct a quantitative study on publications to review the scientific progress of institutions.
Purpose statement The goal of this paper is to evaluate primary healthcare research conducted in Saudi Arabia and to identify the allocation of publications across geographical, topic, time, and institutional dynamics.
Research questions What is the average research output in Saudi Arabia? Which geographical locations provide the most significant scientific research? What are the distribution patterns for publications in the contexts of institution, time, location, and topic?
Hypothesis The study hypothesized that analyzing thePHC publications in Saudi Arabia could be reliable in identifying output and distribution patterns of scientific research.
Dependent and independent variables and type of data First author’s institution group – All articles reviewed in the study provided information on the author’s institutional affiliation. Also, organizations were categorized through several dynamics, including University, Special Hospitals, and Military Institutions, to name a few.Geographical location of institutions – The institutional affiliation of the authors was used to categorize articles in their respective organizations. Further, institutions located within Saudi Arabia were classified according to provinces, while those outside state lines tagged as “institutions outside Saudi Arabia (Jahan & Al-Saigul, 2017, pp. 10).”
Population of interest for the study The study searched articles in two databases, PubMed and Google Scholar, which were published between May 2012 to April 2013. Also, it included original research, case studies, and reviews, and excluded corrections, meetings, and book reviews.
Sample 655 PHC articles
Sampling method Four MeSH terms, “Primary health,” “Primary care,” and “Saudi” were used to filter relevant articles from the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Also, the papers had to be published between May 2012 and April 2013 (Jahan & Al-Saigul, 2017, pp. 10).
Data collection A coding tool was employed to gather specific information from all selected articles. The instrument operated under the following variables; article title, first author’s institution, geographical location, study design, year of publication, MeSH term, name of the journal, and research setting.
Data collection approach For standardization purposes, the study applied the MeSH algorithm patented by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. The tool contains MeSH vocabulary, which can be altered according to different degrees of specificity. Also, it incorporates both broad and narrow headings that were essential in searching publications. The “MeSH on-demand”text box was used to identify research topics after analyzing the abstract of a journal article. Next, the research team had to agree upon a relevant MeSH term, which was used to obtain theMeSH descriptor data.Finally, all the applicable MeSH terms were fed into the coding system.
Data analysis Epi info version 3.5.4. was used to compute the frequencies of different variables(Jahan & Al-Saigul, 2017, pp. 11.)
Results of the study The coding system identified 655 PHC articles published between 1983 and 2011, and the output grew with time. Further, original research papers (85.6%) made up most of the publications, while cross-sectional research (93.4%) was the most applied study method. The most applied research topics were “chronic diseases” and “health services research.” Most publications came from Riyadh province (46.3%), followed by Universities (52.3%), and finally, the Ministry of Health (24.9%) (Jahan & Al-Saigul,2017, p. 9).
Assumptions and limitations The most significant limitation of the study is that it only analyzes the quantitative aspect of publications in Saudi Arabia and disregards the quality. Also, the study assumed that the articles located in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases would adequately represent the scientific output in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, discrepancies in indexing dynamics affected the database search, and some publications couldn’t be identified. Some abstracts didn’t provide reliable information to identify the variables of several articles.Finally, the paper didn’t find appropriate MeSH terms for occasional studies, which risks a misclassification of several publications.

 Ethical Considerations

Ethics is a significant cornerstone of conducting proper research. In the data collection procedure, there isconsiderable potential for infringing participants’ consent.Explicitly, some subjects may prohibit the use of their medical information in further studies, which is a potential ethical consideration in this study. In future studies, the authors and the institution should acknowledge that the provision of information, like the geographical distribution of publications and main topics, doesn’t contravene consent agreements.

Furthermore, the results of the study could potentially violate the Beneficenceprinciple.The rule mandates researchers to structure hypotheses and conduct research appropriately to serve beneficiariesbetter (Fouka & Mantzorou, 2011, p.5). In this context, when study findings don’t match the expected proficiency, researchers and medical practitioners might face significant ethical considerations.Therefore, researchers have to consider what elements of a study could be “harmful” to avoid emotional, psychological, social, and economic consequences. For instance, Jahan & Al-Saigul (2017) concluded that most studies in Saudi Arabia implement cross-sectional study designs.

Consequently, there is a deficiency of analytical study designs, which technically provide more reliable evidence. Some readers can use this conclusion to infer that Saudi Arabia lacks efficient research, which could raise ethical issues amongst institutions and health care providers. However, Jahan & Al-Saigul provide reliable recommendations that encourage the professional implementation of PCH research (Jahan & Al-Saigul, 2017, pp.14). They emphasize on the pros of introducing a central regulatory authority that oversees all activities across the constituents.

References

Fouka, G., & Mantzorou, M. (2011). What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? Is there a conflict between the research ethics and the nature of nursing? Health Science Journal, 5(1), 3-14.

Jahan, S., & Al-Saigul, A. M. (2017). Primary health care research in Saudi Arabia: A quantitative analysis. International Journal of Health Sciences, 11(2), 9–15

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