ESSAY: GLOBAL EVENTS

Assessment 4

Global Events

Write a 5 page, APA-formatted report that explains the responses to a global event, how issues of race, class, and gender may have affected the response, and the role of international and altruistic organizations in providing health care services related to the event.  Describe barriers to receiving health care services related to the event, and explain the role of the professional nurse in providing health care services related to the global event.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), natural disasters kill approximately 90,000 people and impact another 160 million people every year (2015).  Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and wildfires not only have an immediate impact on those who live in and around the affected area, they also often have a longer-term effect on the health and well-being of those impacted.  Developing countries are frequently unable to respond to natural disasters effectively and efficiently because they lack resources, infrastructure, and disaster-preparedness systems.

Poor health care systems in developing countries also make these countries more vulnerable to epidemics such as the recent outbreak of Ebola in Chad, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.  According to a report from Save the Children (2015), some developing countries have less than one health care worker for every 2,000 people.  Other diseases such as malaria and pneumonia account for as many as 17,000 child deaths every day (Save the Children, 2015).

Nurses can provide critical skills during times of global events.  Whether by volunteering directly at the site of the event or by recruiting, screening, and training other professional nurses behind the scenes, nurses are crucial to global relief efforts.

What does it mean to be a global citizen?

What responsibility do health care professionals assume during times of global events, by being global citizens?

References

Save the Children. (2015). A wake-up call: Lessons from Ebola for the world’s health systems. Retrieved from http://www.savethechildren.org/atf/cf/%7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0-df91d2eba74a%7D/WAKE%20UP%20CALL%20REPORT%20PDF.PDF

World Health Organization. (2015). Natural disaster profiles. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/emergencies/en/

Resources

Rowthorn, V. (2013). A place for all at the global health table: A case study about creating an interprofessional global health project. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 41(4), 907–914.

Mitani, S., Kako, M., & Mayner, L. (2014). Medical relief for the 2011 Japan earthquake: A nursing account. Nursing & Health Sciences, 16(1), 26–30.

Li, X. H., & Zheng, J. C. (2014). Efficient post-disaster patient transportation and transfer: Experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue in Aceh after the 2004 Asian tsunami. Military Medicine, 179(8), 913–919.

Agusto, F. B., Teboh-Ewungkem, M. I., & Gumel, A. B. (2015). Mathematical assessment of the effect of traditional beliefs and customs on the transmission dynamics of the 2014 Ebola outbreaks. BMC Medicine, 13(1), 1–17.

Charania, N. A., & Tsuji, L. (2012). A community-based participatory approach and engagement process creates culturally appropriate and community informed pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: Remote and isolated First Nations communities of Sub-Arctic Ontario, Canada. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 268–276.

Maurer, F. A., & Smith, C. M. (2013). Community/public health nursing practice: Health for families and populations (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: W. B. Saunders.

Chapter 10.

Internet Resources

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Health action in crises publications. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/hac/publications/en/

Brewer, K. (2010, June). Who will be there? Ethics, the law, and a nurse’s duty to respond in a disaster (ANA Issue Brief). Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/WorkplaceSafety/Healthy-Work-Environment/DPR/Disaster-Preparedness.pdf

DeMoro, R. A. (2014, September 8). The underreported side of the Ebola crisis [Blog]. Retrieved from http://www.nationalnursesunited.org/blog/entry/the-underreported-side-of-the-ebola-crisis/

American Nurses Association. (n.d.). Disaster preparedness and response. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/disasterpreparedness

Preparation

Suppose that within your health care organization there is no formal process or structure for health care professionals to volunteer time and services in times of global need.  You would like to develop a proposal for establishing a process that would allow nurses and other health care professionals to secure time off to work with a specific worldwide organization, to provide health care services during global events.  As part of the proposal, you would need to provide background research to support your request.

Conduct background research on either one of the following to support the proposal you would develop:

Choose one worldwide epidemic, such as the (Choose a topic that you are most comfortable writing about)

2009 flu pandemic,

2009 mumps outbreak,

2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak,

the recent Ebola virus epidemic,

or another epidemic.  

Research articles that focus on how the initial outbreak was handled; the role of social attitudes and issues of race, class, and gender in responding to the outbreak; barriers to people receiving proper health care; and the role of nursing in providing health care services related to the epidemic.

Choose one natural disaster, such as the (Choose a topic that you are most comfortable writing about)

earthquakes in Haiti, Pakistan, or Nepal;

Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar;

the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami,

or any other natural disaster that brought a worldwide response.  

Research articles that focus on the initial response to the disaster; the role of social attitudes and issues of race, class, and gender in responding to the disaster; barriers to survivors receiving health care; and the role of nursing in providing health care services related to the disaster.

Requirements

For this assessment, develop background research that would support a proposal for an organizational process allowing health care professionals to volunteer time and services when global events happen. First, identify the global event you will be using in your research, and then:

Explain how the local and national (meaning the nation in which the event took place) communities responded to the event.  Who responded?  How long did the first response take?  How did health care providers respond?

Explain how social attitudes, as well as issues of race, class, gender, or other factors may have influenced the response to the event.  Be sure you consider not only the response of the home country, but the global response as well.

Describe barriers to health care services for the people impacted by the event.  Some barriers may be obvious and other barriers less obvious; try to consider multiple aspects.

Explain the role of international health organizations and altruistic organizations in providing health care services related to the global event.

Explain the role of the professional nurse in providing health care services related to the global event.  Consider scope of practice when working professionally out of one’s area of license—either nationally or globally.

Additional Requirements

Complete your assessment using the following specifications:

Title page and reference page.

Number of pages: 5 (not  including the title and reference pages).

At least 4 current scholarly or professional resources.

APA format for the entire document, including citations and references.

Times New Roman font, 12-point, double-spaced.

Scoring Guide

1.  Explains the response to a global event at the local and national levels, and describes how the response impacted outcomes.

2.  Explains how social attitudes and issues of race, class, and/or gender may impact the response to a global event, providing real-world examples that add clarity and insight.

3.  Explains the role of international and altruistic organizations in providing health care services during a global event, and considers how professional nursing can play a greater part within the organizations.

4.  Explains the role of the professional nurse in providing health care services related to global events, addresses scope of practice when working outside the area of license, and explores the contribution of nursing to positive outcomes.

5.  Describes barriers to health care services during a global event, and offers evidence-based strategies to overcome barriers.

6.  Writes clearly and logically with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics; uses relevant evidence to support a central idea.

7.  Correctly formats paper, citations, and references, using current APA style with no errors.

ANSWER

Global Events

Healthcare Professionals as Global Citizens

            This paper briefly describes the Indian Ocean earthquake that occurred in 2004, analyzing the impact of the disaster on the global society. Technological advancements of the 21st century have made the world to be a global village. However, what exactly does being a global citizen imply? Being a global citizen involves an individual creating an all-inclusive identity whereby a person perceives the world as a community. Such identity is forged in response to political, religious, economic and social needs. The ideology of global citizenship transcends geographical and political borders, placing broader emphasis on humanity. Conceptually, all persons have civic rights and responsibilities that come with being human, embracing global philosophies rather than national beliefs.

            As global citizens, health care professionals have an obligation not only to their countries of origin but to the world at large. The responsibility assumed by health workers during times of global disasters bridges the divide between the industrialized and developing nations ensuring that the societal fabric does not dissipate in the face of humanitarian crisis. Therefore, the role played by nurses alongside other health workers cannot be overlooked. Nurses have previously demonstrated their dedication, compassion, expertise and courage in helping communities respond to and recover from catastrophic events (Titov et al., 2005).

Discussion On the Earthquake and The Resulting Tsunami

            The epicenter of the catastrophic earthquake was off the West coast of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The underwater event occurred when the Burma plate subducted the Indian plate. The resulting earthquake was one of the severest ever recorded in recent history. A large section of fault surface broke-away resulting in a series of devastating tsunamis along coastal landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean in south East Asia, India, Burma, Sri Lanka and East Africa. Casualties were reported in over fourteen countries. While the tsunami happened hours after the earthquake in many places, most of the victims were caught by surprise because the countries did not have systems to warn coastal populations of the impending disaster. The general population living around the ocean was not warned of the impending danger. In Aceh province that lies on Sumatra Island, western Indonesia, waves of seawater twenty meters in height struck coastal settlements causing a devastating destruction of property, buildings, infrastructure and human life (Lessig et al., 2006).

Response to The Event by The Local and International Communities

            Widespread infrastructural damage called for a lot aid from international organizations, to help mitigate the food and water shortage and economic losses. The tropical climate around the disaster zones increased the risk of disease epidemics. The biggest priorities for humanitarian agencies was provision of sanitation facilities and clean drinking water to contain the spread of contagious diseases including dysentery, cholera, typhoid, diphtheria and hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Another concern was increased fatalities because of widespread hunger and disease. Luckily, deaths were minimized following the prompt response by local and int.             Bodies of the tsunami victims were buried hurriedly because people feared the spread of diseases. Many resources were provided by both the local and international communities to assist those affected in the aftermath of the devastating tsunami. For instance, international organizations such as World Food Programme provided food aid to people who…

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