Week 10 Cognitive Development Nature vs. Nurture

Week 10 Cognitive Development Nature vs. Nurture

PSY-101: Principles of Psychology

Chapter 9

Chapter 9: Lifespan Development

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY ● Study of the patterns of growth and change that occur

throughout the lifespan ○ Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Changes

● The Nature vs. Nurture debate ○ Psychologists typically take an interactionist

perspective ■ Both nature and nurture interact

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT ● “Before birth” Development

● Environmental influences ○ Mother’s nutrition ○ Mother’s illness ○ Mother’s emotional state ○ Mother’s drug use

THE EXTRAORDINARY NEWBORN

● Reflexes ○ Unlearned (i.e., innate) automatic responses to stimuli

■ Rooting ■ Sucking ■ Gagging ■ Grasping

○ Most disappear within 4 to 5 months

ATTACHMENT ● The positive emotional bond that develops between a

child and a particular individual ● Feelings of comfort and security are the critical

components in building a positive attachment ○ See Harlow’s monkey studies

BAUMRIND’S PARENTING PRACTICES ● Authoritative is the ideal style in many cultures

○ High responsiveness: There is love, care, and affection ○ High control: There are rules, limits, and structure

● Other styles lack either control, responsiveness, or both ○ Lack of control (e.g., permissive parenting) can lead to

risky adolescent behavior ○ Lack of responsiveness (e.g., authoritarian parenting)

can produce anxious and unhappy children

ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ● Humans enter a “crisis” at each developmental period

○ Resolution of the crisis is mostly dependent on environmental factors (e.g., interactions with parents, teachers, peers)

● Resolution of a crisis does NOT predict the resolution of following crises ○ One exception!

■ A resolution of the identity crisis in adolescence predicts the resolution of the intimacy crisis

ADOLESCENCE ● The socially constructed stage between childhood and

adulthood ● Not as “bad” as once thought

○ Research does not support the idea of a typical “adolescent rebellion”

● Frontal lobes of brain have not finished developing ○ Responsible for judgement, impulse control, planning

● Peer groups tend to become more important than family

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Sensorimotor Stage (0 to 2 years) ● “Thinking” is sensory experience (e.g., seeing, hearing, touching, tasting) ● These infants lack object permanence

Preoperational Stage (2 to 6 years) ● One-way thinking through words and symbols; no logical reasoning ● These children are egocentric and lack conservation

Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 years) ● Logical thinking with tangible events and analogies ● These children aren’t able to think abstractly

Formal Operational Stage (12+ years) ● Thinking abstractly ● These people can engage in hypothetical reasoning

PIAGETIAN EGOCENTRISM

PIAGETIAN CONSERVATION

THINKING ABSTRACTLY

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ● There are some major criticisms of Piaget’s theory

○ Many think development is continuous and therefore this discontinuous stage-like model isn’t accurate

○ Many have observed children reaching cognitive milestones long before Piaget would have argued

○ Argument for a fifth stage beyond Formal Operations ■ Postformal thought

● Emotions become more integrated with logic over time

VYGOTSKY’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

● Argues that cognitive development is continuous, not stage-like

● If we receive scaffolding (i.e., support) from more capable individuals within our zone of proximal development, we’re able to cognitively progress at astonishing rates

KOHLBERG’S MORAL DEVELOPMENT ● People go through three broad levels of moral reasoning

as they age ○ Preconventional Morality (before age 9)

■ Something is wrong if there’s a punishment ○ Conventional Morality (early adolescence)

■ Something is wrong if it’s against the rules ○ Postconventional Morality (adolescence and beyond)

■ Something is wrong if it is against the “greater good”

ADULTHOOD ● For most, early adulthood is the peak of physical health

○ After 25, the body becomes slightly less efficient and more susceptible to disease

● Cognitive ability can remain strong throughout life ○ Maintain a balanced diet ○ Exercise regularly ○ Engage in social interaction

WHY DO WE “GROW OLD”? ● Genetic Preprogramming Theory of Aging

○ Human cells have a built-in time limit to their reproduction ○ The “nature” side of aging

● Wear-and-Tear Theory of Aging ○ The mechanical functions of the body work more or less

efficiently depending on how it’s treated over time ○ The “nurture” side of aging

DEATH AND DYING Kübler-Ross’s five-stage model of grief:

● Denial ● Anger ● Bargaining ● Depression ● Acceptance

● Not necessarily experienced in this order (or at all for some) ● Reaching acceptance allows one to die with dignity

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