ESSAY: Diagnosis

Using Chapters 9 and 10 of your Goolsby and Grubbs text, select one common diagnosis and one-less common diagnosis for the breasts and select one common diagnosis and one less-common diagnosis for the abdomen. Describe how you would be able to differentiate the common from the less-common diagnoses in an exam.

Remember, you will have four total diagnoses to discuss this week: two related to breasts and two related to the abdomen.

ANSWER

Breast Diagnosis

A breast lump is among the most common breast diagnosis that may affect both male and female of any age. Although it is hard to identify a new breast disorder, breast problems are not always caused by breast cancer. Healthcare specialists may discover a breast lump through examining the breast, but it is complex to determine through examination alone whether the lumps are as a result of breast cancer. Most breast lumps cases in women below 50 years are not cancerous, but all new breast lumps need to be evaluated to determine whether further testing is required (Goolsby & Grubbs, 2015). Both male and female infants may inherit breast lumps from their mothers’ estrogen during birth, but these lumps, in most cases, disappear on their own as the oestrogenic content clears. For women aged 30 years and above and who may be diagnosed with breast lumps, there is a need for diagnostic mammograms and ultrasound evaluations. During a mammogram examination, a mammogram specialist works cordially with a radiologist in examining the affected area. When breast lumps tend to be suspicious, particularly during mammogram or ultrasound evaluation, a breast biopsy is advised (Kroenke et al., 2015).

On the other hand, Mastitis –breast inflammation – is a less common type of breast diagnosis. The disease causes pain, lumpiness, heat, and redness in the affected area of the breast. In most cases, mastitis is caused by a bacterial infection during the breastfeeding period, but its effects may also be attributed to inflammation and blockage of the breast duct (Kroenke et al., 2015). A milk duct can be clogged as a result of the incomplete breast, emptying, or excess pressure on the breast. Clogged milk ducts create room for multiplication of bacteria, thus leading to an infection. The differentiating factors between mastitis and breast lumps include age, symptoms, disease severity, and the area affected (Goolsby & Grubbs, 2015). 

Abdomen Diagnoses

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common type of abdominal disorder that mainly affects the large intestine. The disease is primarily triggered by a group of symptoms, including abdominal pain and changes in bowel movement, which may occur as a result of constipation or diarrhoea based on the type of IBS a patient is suffering from (Holmes & Howry, 2013). The disease is diagnosed through a review of the patient’s symptoms, family history, and physical examination. Healthcare specialists can treat IBS through conducting mental health therapy, recommending a change in diets and lifestyle, probiotics, and medicines. On the other hand, Acid reflux (GER and GERD) is a less common type of abdominal diagnosis. The disease occurs when contents in the stomach get back through the oesophagus, thus leading to heartburn. Persistence heartburn is the most common symptom of acid reflux, and if not treated immediately, the disease may prolong….

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